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Angiogenesis Markers
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Angiogenesis Markers

Angiogenesis:the growth of new blood vessels - is an important natural process occurring in the body, both in health and in disease.


  • 4N1K-containing proteins in tumor tissues is associated with reduced angiogenesis and tumor growth; thus, it would be a potentially predictive marker for progression of RCC. PMID: 12738728

AGF (angiopoietin-related growth factor)

  • a novel angiogenic factor and that handling of its biologic functions could lead to novel therapeutic strategies for control of angiogenesis. PMID: 14764539

Angiogenin (ANG)

  • a potent angiogenic factor, inducer of new blood vessel formation, binds to endothelial cells and is endocytosed and rapidly translocated to and concentrated in the nucleolus where it binds to DNA. PMID: 17125737PMID: 10604235PMID: 2866795
  • has a dual effect, angiogenesis and cancer cell proliferation, in prostate cancer and may serve as a molecular target for drug development. Blocking nuclear translocation of angiogenin could have a combined benefit of antiangiogenesis and chemotherapy in treating prostate cancer. PMID: 16971483
  • one of the neovascularization factors of human gastric carcinoma (HGC). ANG may work in coordination with VEGF, and promote the proliferation of HGC cells. PMID: 16937522
  • an efficient angiogenesis factor, is up-regulated in human colorectal carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, and other tumors. PMID: 15757533
  • an angiogenic protein that undergoes nuclear translocation in endothelial cells where it accumulates in the nucleolus and stimulates rRNA transcription, a rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis, protein translation, and cell growth. PMID: 15558023
  • one of the most potent inducers of neovascularization in experimental models in vivo, is normally present in plasma but overexpressed in cancer patients. PMID: 11578940
  • involved in morphological changes and angiogenesis in the ovary. PMID: 10092530
  • widespread expression pattern of angiogenin suggests a physiological function that is not restricted to the neovascularization process. PMID: 7528139


  • mediates angiogenesis by enhancing endothelial cell survival and migration. PMID: 16778190
  • plays an important role in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of gastric cancer, and targeting its expression may be beneficial for the therapy of gastric cancer. PMID: 16688843
  • plays a role in synergistically inducing angiogenesis and BBB integrity. PMID: 16671501
  • expression of Ang-1 and Ang-2 is important for tumor angiogenesis, and suggest a possible role of autocrine/paracrine function of angiopoietin/Tie2 system in gastric cancer progression. PMID: 16614513
  • a specific growth factor functioning to generate a stable and functional vasculature through the Tie2 and Tie1 receptors, can promote wound healing in diabetes through enhanced angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and blood flow. PMID: 16543381
  • a critical angiogenic factor for vascular maturation and enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in a complementary manner. PMID: 16380295
  • plays an important role in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of gastric cancer which can be partially abrogated by antisense technique. PMID: 15946543
  • a critical factor in the regulation of physiological and pathological vessel formation that acts by binding to a specific receptor Tie2 expressed on endothelial cells. PMID: 15621778
  • a physiological angiogenesis promoter during embryonic development. PMID: 14672554
  • Ang-1 and Ang-2 expression plays an important role in the angiogenic and dedifferentiation processes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PMID: 14600132
  • an important regulator of angiogenesis and vascular permeability and that this effect may be secondary to increasing periendothelial support and vessel stabilization. PMID: 12810673
  • promotes tumor angiogenesis and tumor vessel plasticity of human cervical cancer in mice. PMID: 12243755
  • expressed by pericytes in vitro and in vivo and that the role proposed for Ang-1 in vessel maturation in development can be extended to vessel maturation after angiogenesis in adult tissues. PMID: 11950897
  • directly acts on endothelial cells (ECs) by modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix associations and promoting the differentiation phase of angiogenesis. PMID: 11304469
  • an angiogenic factor that signals through the endothelial cell-specific Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase. PMID: 9204896


  • an early marker of tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 10506510
  • a conditional antagonist and agonist for the endothelium-specific Tie-2 receptor. PMID: 17440098
  • involved in pericyte recruitment, and modulates intraretinal, and preretinal vessel formation in the eye under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID: 17200776
  • Ang-2 expression increases perfusion or vascularization, especially in interaction with the vascular growth factor system, without affecting tumor growth. PMID: 16954561
  • exhibits broad expression in the remodeling vasculature of human tumors but very limited expression in normal tissues, making it an attractive candidate target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. PMID: 15542434
  • plays an important role in retinal angiogenesis. PMID: 12115724
  • In patients with colon carcinoma, Ang-2 is expressed ubiquitously in tumor epithelium, whereas expression of Ang-1 in tumor epithelium is rare. The net gain of Ang-2 activity is possibly an initiating factor for tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 11571726
  • glioma cells themselves express Ang2 and that expression may be induced by hypoxic stimulation and may play a crucial role in the vessel maturation, angiogenesis, and vessel regression in malignant glioma. PMID: 11507079
  • imbalances between Ang-1 and -2 that result in a net gain of Ang-2 activity lead to enhanced tumor angiogenesis and growth. PMID: 11245414
  • Ang-2 may play an important role in regulating tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 11159193


  • one of the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID: 16564503
  • a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, could selectively inhibit proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. PMID: 16159432
  • generated by MMP-mediated proteolysis of plasminogen in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
  • a 38-kD fragment of plasminogen, inhibits angiogenesis in both animal tumor models and in vitro endothelial cell models. PMID: 15041799
  • can act as an inhibitor of both endothelial and neutrophil recruitment. PMID: 12469189
  • inhibits coronary angiogenesis during compromised NO production and may underscore the impairment of coronary angiogenesis during endothelial dysfunction. PMID: 11994253
  • directly inhibits neutrophil migration and neutrophil-mediated angiogenesis and indicate that angiostatin might inhibit inflammation. PMID: 11772950
  • inhibits pathological but not physiological retinal angiogenesis. PMID: 11726640
  • is not a regularly expressed angiogenesis inhibitor in human vitreous. PMID: 11126410
  • consisting of four homologous triple-disulfide bridged kringle domains, has previously been shown to exhibit profound inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. PMID: 9837863
  • the inhibitory effect of angiostatin not only on induced angiogenesis but also on baseline, spontaneous angiogenesis. PMID: 9828147
  • a potent naturally occurring inhibitor of angiogenesis and growth of tumor metastases, is generated by cancer-mediated proteolysis of plasminogen. PMID: 9380726
  • an endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and of tumor growth. PMID: 9002223
  • can be generated directly by human prostate cancer cells and that serine proteinase activity is necessary for angiostatin generation. PMID: 8895739
  • a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma. PMID: 7525077

ARP4 (angiopoietin-related protein 4)

  • ARP4 functions as a novel antiangiogenic modulatory factor and indicate a potential therapeutic effect of ARP4 in neoplastic diseases. PMID: 14583458

bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor)

CD31 (PECAM-1)

  • anti-CD31 microvessel immunostaining has several advantages over anti-Factor VIII, being a more sensitive method for highlighting small, immature microvessels or single endothelial cells. This could be of importance in revealing possible correlation of tumor angiogenesis with metastatic behavior, prognosis, or angiogenic factor overexpression. PMID: 9815651
  • PECAM-1 is involved in angiogenesis and suggest that the interactions of endothelial cell-cell adhesion molecules are important in the formation of new vessels. PMID: 9284815
  • an important mediator of vascular barrier and regulator of leukocyte and endothelial cells (EC) adhesion and migration. PMID: 16440301
  • a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed at high levels on endothelial cells, has been recently implicated in angiogenesis. PMID: 14517436
  • during angiogenesis PECAM-1 participates in adhesive and/or signaling phenomena required for the motility of endothelial cells and/or their subsequent organization into vascular tubes. PMID: 11940533
  • PECAM-1 proved to be a more reliable marker for angiogenesis than antibodies to von Willebrand Factor. PMID: 7507944


  • a marker for evaluating angiogenesis in cervical cancer. PMID: 15991838
  • a marker of angiogenesis. PMID: 12609567
  • has been the one most commonly used in studies of tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 12051629
  • a sensitive marker of vascular endothelium and angiogenesis, is suggested to be correlated with the process of angiogenesis induced by internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). PMID: 10432193


  • an adhesion receptor on inflammatory cells, stimulates angiogenesis through binding integrin counterreceptors on endothelial cells. PMID: 15576472

CD146 (MUC18)

  • a marker for synovial membrane angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis. PMID: 10211875
  • inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth via suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB activation. PMID: 17121934PMID: 12609848
  • CD146 real-time PCR may be an easy and reliable approach to quantify CEC in peripheral blood samples and could facilitate the integration of CEC measurements in clinical studies exploring the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapies. PMID: 16160694

CECs (circulating endothelial cells)

CEPs (circulating endothelial precursor cells)

  • a surrogate marker to monitor and adjust antiangiogenic therapy. PMID: 15652744

Collagenase-1 (C1)

  • C1 production begins at early stages of blood vessel formation and continues throughout angiogenesis. In contrast, Fn-f expression is limited to later stages of vasculogenesis, indicating that these proteins are reliable markers of angiogenesis. PMID: 9727625

COX-2 (Cyclooxygenase-2)

  • the inducible key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, appears to play a role in the regulation of progression, invasiveness and angiogenesis of various neoplasms including some glial tumors. PMID: 17007443
  • highly expressed in ampullary carcinomas. This suggests an involvement of the COX-2 pathway in ampullary tumour associated angiogenesis, providing a rationale for targeting COX-2 in the treatment of ampullary cancer. PMID: 16489179
  • plays an important role in VEGF-induced angiogenesis via p38 and JNK kinase activation pathways. These findings suggest that the cardioprotective role of COX-2 may be, at least in part, through its angiogenic activity. PMID: 16336951
  • may be involved in the course of tumor angiogenesis of colorectal cancer and acts through VEGF. PMID: 15285012
  • an important mediator of angiogenesis and tumor growth. PMID: 15179620
  • key enzyme in the synthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxans, is highly up-regulated in tumor cells, stromal cells and angiogenic endothelial cells during tumor progression. Recent experiments have demonstrated that COX-2 promotes tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 14984767
  • the inhibition of the COX-2/VEGF-dependent pathway was effective in tumor-associated angiogenesis, tumor growth, and tumor metastasis. PMID: 14563940
  • localized to sites associated with retinal blood vessels. The finding that the selective COX-2 inhibitor, rofecoxib, attenuated the retinal angiogenesis that accompanies ROP, and normal retinal development indicates that COX-2 plays an important role in blood vessel formation in the retina. PMID: 12601017
  • combined expression of iNOS and COX-2 may play an important role in prognosis of HCV-positive HCC patients and that this could be partially attributable to modulation of angiogenesis by COX-2. PMID: 11350902
  • Cox-2, iNOS and p53 are thus fundamental play-makers of the angiogenic process: they are discussed in detail and a tentative hierarchical cascade is proposed. PMID: 9850741


  • showed a broad-spectrum antitumor effect in mice through inhibition of angiogenesis and indicate that the decrease of integrin alpha2 on platelets might serve as a biological marker for the antitumor efficacy of E7820. PMID: 14977846
  • a unique angiogenesis inhibitor suppressing an expression of integrin alpha2 subunit on endothelium. PMID: 12414636

EG-1 (endothelial-derived gene-1)

  • associated with a stimulated state in endothelial and epithelial cells, and may have a role in tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 11779215

Extra-Domain B (ED-B) of Fibronectin

  • one of the established marker of angiogenesis, has been found to be present almost exclusively in the modified extra-cellular matrix surrounding newly-formed blood vessels in tumors (and other animal models of ocular pathologies), being completely absent from the normal vasculature in adult organs. PMID: 15134574
  • a naturally occurring marker of tissue remodeling and angiogenesis, is expressed in the majority of aggressive solid human tumors, whereas it is not detectable in normal vessels and tissues. PMID: 12838025
  • expressed only during angiogenic processes and in tissues undergoing growth and/or extensive remodeling. PMID: 12576420
  • a naturally occurring marker of angiogenesis identical in mouse and man, is expressed in the majority of aggressive solid tumors but is undetectable in normal vessels and tissues. PMID: 11212273
  • a marker for the formation of new vessels, and useful for evaluating the level of the angiogenetic process in different neoplasms. PMID: 7525495

Endoglin (CD105)

  • a better marker than CD31 in evaluation of angiogenesis in glioblastoma. PMID: 15861521
  • a cell membrane glycoprotein predominantly expressed on cellular lineages within the vascular system, and over-expressed on proliferating endothelial cells, is involved in blood vessels development and represents a powerful marker of neovascularization. In human malignancies of different histotype, CD105 is highly expressed on endothelial cells of both peri- and intra-tumoral blood vessels, while it is weakly expressed or absent on neoplastic cells. This unique tissue distribution strongly suggests for a prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic potential of CD105 in neoplastic diseases. PMID: 14683500
  • expressed exclusively in endothelial blood vessels, and de novo blood vessels of colon cancer specifically express CD105. PMID: 16177881
  • has been identified as marker of tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in breast cancer. PMID: 15274325
  • has been reported as expressed by activated endothelial cells and consequently should better reflect neoangiogenesis in malignant tumors. PMID: 15067342
  • These data demonstrate the superiority of CD105 over CD34 as a marker of angiogenesis in HCC and indicate that the tissue microarray technique is unsuitable for evaluating angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). PMID: 17311868
  • Anti-CD105 mAb proved to be superior to anti-CD34 mAb in evaluation of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PMID: 11705856

ESAF (Endothelial cell stimulating angiogenesis factor)

  • a potent, low molecular mass mitogen, specific for endothelial cells. PMID: 1649618

Factor VIII

  • Anti-Factor VIII vessel immunostaining has been widely used in the detection of angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer and other tumors. PMID: 9815651

Flt-1 (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1)

  • a receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the ratio of mFlt-1 mRNA to VEGF mRNA was inversely correlated with tumor angiogenesis, and was a significant prognostic factor. PMID: 16530326
  • Flt-1 is a positive regulator using its tyrosine kinase under pathological conditions when the Flt-1-specific ligand is abnormally highly expressed. Thus, Flt-1 has a dual function in angiogenesis, acting in a positive or negative manner in different biological conditions. PMID: 11221852
  • Flt-1 without tyrosine kinase domain is sufficient to allow embryonic development with normal angiogenesis, and that a receptor tyrosine kinase plays a main biological role as a ligand-binding molecule. PMID: 9689083

Integrin alpha1, alpha2

  • the alpha1 and alpha2 integrin subunits are both involved in the cell migration, and more specifically, that the alpha2 integrin subunit participates in cell migration through the KDGEA sequence. The alpha3 integrin subunit played a role in tube formation. PMID: 15168335

Integrin alpha2beta1

  • required for regulation of murine wound angiogenesis but is dispensable for reepithelialization. PMID: 16977325

Integrin alpha3beta1

  • critical for alpha3(IV)NC1-mediated inhibition of COX-2 dependent angiogenic signaling and inhibition of tumor progression. PMID: 17426256

Integrin alpha 5 beta 1

  • alpha 5 beta 1 integrin promotes an NF-kappa B-dependent program of gene expression that coordinately regulates angiogenesis and inflammation. PMID: 12138201

Integrin alpha(v)beta(3)

  • found on endothelial cells lining newly growing blood vessels at a higher density than on mature blood vessels. PMID: 12897712
  • upregulated in newly synthesized blood vessels produced in response to a variety of tumors and purified angiogenic factors. PMID: 12558065
  • the alpha v beta 3, alpha v beta 5, and alpha v beta 6 integrins are up-regulated briefly during wound angiogenesis with different patterns of expression and that inhibition of the alpha v beta 3 integrin blocked new vessel formation during human wound healing. PMID: 9327731

Integrin alpha6beta4

  • alpha6beta4 signaling promotes the onset of the invasive phase of pathological angiogenesis and hence identify a novel target for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID: 15542431

Integrin alpha9beta1

  • expressed on microvascular endothelial cells interacts with thrombospondin-1, and this interaction is involved in modulation of angiogenesis. PMID: 17413041
  • directly binds to VEGF-C and D and contributes to lymphangiogenesis, these results identify the integrin alpha9beta1 as a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for inhibition of pathogenic angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. PMID: 17363377


  • a critical adhesion molecule for inducing therapeutic angiogenesis in cell-based therapy, by regulating cell survival and differentiation after implantation into ischemic tissue. PMID: 15621034


  • involved in the regulation of angiogenesis and are up-regulated in a number of tumours in humans and in particular, breast cancer. PMID: 16556453
  • KDR/Flk-1 is a major regulator of VEGF-mediated HCC development and angiogenesis not only at the initial stage, but also after the tumor has fully developed. PMID: 10534339


  • soluble N-cadherin stimulates migration of endothelial cells through the FGF-receptor. PMID: 17028923
  • N-cadherin mediates adhesion, recognition, and signaling between pericytes and endothelial cells required for normal vascular morphogenesis. PMID: 10878612


  • a class VI intermediate filament protein, was reported to be a good angiogenic marker in animal models. PMID: 12051629
  • Nestin-linked green fluorescent protein transgenic nude mouse for imaging human tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 15958583PMID: 17136576
  • expressed by endothelial cells of developing blood vessels in the rat. PMID: 10732706
  • nestin expression in endothelial cells lining cerebral vessels accompanies the process of angiogenesis. PMID: 10707828

NG2 proteoglycan

  • expressed by microvascular pericytes in newly formed blood vessels, is an important factor in promoting EC migration and morphogenesis during the early stages of neovascularization. PMID: 15181153
  • expressed by nascent pericytes during the early stages of angiogenesis. PMID: 15609081
  • expressed on immature capillary vessels, but as the vessels mature they lose this expression. PMID: 11919162

PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen)

  • may also be a marker for angiogenesis and could represent a target for deliverable agents recognizing either prostatic tumors or endothelial development. PMID: 16192687

PV-1 (Plasmalemmal vesicle associated protein-1)

  • preferentially induced in the endothelium of high-grade human brain tumors. Inhibition of PV-1 expression is associated with failure of endothelial differentiation in vitro. PV-1 represents a novel marker of brain tumor angiogenesis and integrity of the blood-brain barrier and is a potential therapeutic target. PMID: 16278383


  • a new marker of angiogenesis in human astrocytic gliomas. PMID: 16773219
  • a marker of active angiogenesis in endometriosis. PMID: 15821778


  • Syndecan-1, E-cadherin and c-met constitute a marker signature associated with angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors in DCIS. PMID: 17244359


  • T-cadherin expressed in the stroma could act as a negative guidance cue for the ingrowing blood vessels and thus could have an important potential therapeutic application. PMID: 17486418

TEM-5 (Tumor endothelial marker 5)

  • a member of the adhesion family of G-protein-coupled receptors and up-regulated in endothelial cells during tumor and physiologic angiogenesis. PMID: 16982628

TEM-8 (Tumour endothelial marker-8)

  • has been found to be selectively upregulated in tumour-associated endothelial cells and is implicated in tumour specific angiogenesis. PMID: 15202019

Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1)

  • was demonstrated to be a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. PMID: 9987673
  • an extracellular matrix component glycoprotein, which is known to be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and may be important in cancer invasiveness. PMID: 16732887
  • a potent angiogenesis inhibitor, and down-regulation of TSP-1 has been suggested to alter tumor growth by modulating angiogenesis in a variety of tumor types. PMID: 16406676PMID: 10859480
  • TSP-1, more than TSP-2, helps to suppress inflammation-induced corneal angiogenesis postnatally, implying that angiogenic privilege in the cornea is actively maintained. PMID: 15037577
  • the balance between VEGF and TSP-1 plays a critical role in the control of angiogenesis and vascular regression induced by acute UVB irradiation. PMID: 14962109
  • a major target for Id1 effects on angiogenesis. PMID: 12498716
  • a potent peptide shown in other tumor systems to be associated with angiogenesis and possibly regulated by p53, a gene which is mutated in as high as 50% of advanced ovarian cancers. PMID: 11531279
  • a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis, is present in vitreous and aqueous humor and is modulated by hyperglycemia. PMID: 10623607
  • a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth in carcinomas of the skin. PMID: 10433937
  • a reciprocal relationship exists between TSP1 and PECAM-1 such that they are constituents of a "switch" that regulates in concert many components of the angiogenic and differentiated phenotype of ECs. PMID: 9987673
  • a 450-kDa glycoprotein in platelets and extracellular matrix, is involved in angiogenesis. PMID: 9299165
  • a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis, regulates platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 expression and endothelial cell morphogenesis. PMID: 9243511

Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2)

  • a major endogenous antiangiogenic and matrix metalloproteinase 2-regulating factor in renal disease. PMID: 17287428
  • an endogenous regulator of angiogenesis and autoimmune inflammation in the synovium and represents a protective mechanism preventing ectopic lympho-organogenesis and persistent inflammation in this tissue site. PMID: 15579451
  • belongs to a group of matricellular proteins that are induced in response to injury and modulate the healing of dermal wounds. PMID: 14996433
  • a potent endogenous inhibitor of tumor growth and angiogenesis. PMID: 10611308


  • appears to be a marker of adult but not embryonic angiogenesis. The upregulation of Thy-1 by cytokines but not growth factors indicates the importance of inflammation in the pathogenesis of adult angiogenesis. PMID: 9576104


  • a transmembrane receptor expressed in vascular endothelium during angiogenic events and during embryonal growth in most mammalian species. PMID: 14506179
  • expression of Tie receptors in actively growing vasculature may reflect the direct involvement of these receptors in angiogenesis and subsequent vascularisation. PMID: 10913057


  • plays a role in tumour angiogenesis and has potential to use as a novel marker of the tumour vasculature. PMID: 9459145

Tn-C (Tenascin-C)

  • may play an important role in angiogenesis of patients with NSCLC, and the determination of serum Tn-C may be useful in predicting intratumoral vasculature and patients' prognosis. PMID: 15816617
  • plays a role in angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, but beside the intensity of expression, the distribution patterns are also important in these processes. PMID: 16388320
  • involved in angiogenesis as an extracellular signal molecule during tumorigenesis PMID: 14618612
  • spatially and temporally related to neovascularization, is found at the peak of angiogenesis and are not detected when angiogenesis had ceased. PMID: 11813879
  • TN-C in human astrocytic tumors may be identified as a factor contributing to malignant progression. And also, enhanced expression of TN-C in tumor vessels having a high proliferative index indicates that TN-C could be involved in neoplastic angiogenesis. PMID: 11118570
  • tenascin expression may be associated with endothelial cell activation and may play an important role in tumour angiogenesis. PMID: 10631717PMID: 7531617

TP (Thymidine phosphorylase)

  • an important regulator of angiogenesis, is correlated with progression, metastasis, and prognosis in various types of tumor. PMID: 11927969

VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1)

  • Serum VCAM-1 appears to be a surrogate marker of angiogenesis in breast cancer. Its measurement may, therefore, help in the assessment of antiangiogenesis drugs currently in phase II trials. PMID: 10944555PMID: 11192830
  • closely related to oncogenesis, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis in gastric carcinoma. PMID: 12854131


  • absolutely required for vascular morphogenesis, but N-cadherin is thought to participate in vessel stabilization by interacting with periendothelial cells during vessel formation. PMID: 16202998
  • an adhesion molecule uniquely expressed in endothelial cells, is a useful marker for assessing microvessels and angiogenesis in human breast cancer. PMID: 15810954
  • The change in VE-cadherin expression of human endothelial cells by fibroblast-derived growth factors may contribute to the regulation of angiogenesis. PMID: 11737235
  • essential for postnatal angiogenesis and thus validate VE-cad as a novel target for antiangiogenesis agents. PMID: 11156369
  • VE-cadherin contributes to the normal differentiation of endothelial barrier function during CAM angiogenesis in vivo. PMID: 11037794


  • a major inducer of angiogenesis in tumors. PMID: 9626350
  • an angiogenesis marker in human prostate carcinoma. PMID: 11306422
  • has been identified as marker of tumor angiogenesis and prognosis in breast cancer. PMID: 15274325
  • can modulate angiogenesis via increased expression and activation of alpha(6)beta(1) integrins, which may promote VEGF-driven tumor angiogenesis in vivo. PMID: 17085437
  • Angiogenesis is very active and expression of VEGF is almost universal in cancers of unknown primary. PMID: 15743540
  • an important angiogenic activator, is essential for angiogenesis. PMID: 16777990
  • activation of VEGF receptor-2 alone can efficiently stimulate angiogenesis. PMID: 9889193
  • VEGF-E is thus a potent angiogenic factor selectively binding to VEGF receptor-2. These data strongly indicate that activation of VEGF receptor-2 alone can efficiently stimulate angiogenesis. PMID: 9889193

VWF (von Willebrand Factor)

  • an endothelial cell marker, is up-regulated by angiogenesis factors: a potential method for objective assessment of tumor angiogenesis. PMID: 10629090


  • Pulmonary microvessel density is a marker of angiogenesis in children after cavopulmonary anastomosis. PMID: 11044316
  • large numbers of Weibel-Palade bodies may be a marker for proliferating endothelial cells in vivo. PMID: 6154535PMID: 2411400

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